The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)

The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)

The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW): The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) received divine permission through Angel Jibra’il to emigrate from Makkah to Yathrib. He began preparations for the journey, including arrangements with Abu Bakr (RA).

Table of Contents

Hijrah: Emigration for the Sake of Allah

What Is Hijrah?

Hijrah refers to the emigration of Muslims from a land of disbelief (shirk) to a land of Islam. The most notable Hijrah in Islamic history is the Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his followers from Makkah to Madinah. This emigration was significant as it marked the transition from a place where Muslims faced persecution to a sanctuary where they could freely practice and propagate Islam. The people of Madinah pledged allegiance to the Prophet, transforming their city into the heart of Islam.

Different Forms of Hijrah

  1. From Land of Shirk to Land of Islam:
    • The primary form of Hijrah involves moving from a land dominated by disbelief to a land governed by Islamic principles. This was exemplified by the migration from Makkah to Madinah.
    • This form of Hijrah aims to empower Muslims to practice their faith freely, fostering stronger religious bonds and community.
  2. From One Land of Shirk to Another Land of Shirk:
    • Sometimes, Hijrah may also involve moving from one non-Muslim land to another where the threat to Muslims is less severe.
    • An example of this is the migration of some Muslims from Makkah to Abyssinia (Ethiopia). The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) instructed followers to seek refuge in Abyssinia, where a just and tolerant Christian king offered protection.

The First Migration to Abyssinia

Background and Reasons

In the early years of Islam, the small Muslim community in Makkah faced severe persecution from the Quraysh tribe. The increasing hostility included verbal abuse, economic sanctions, social ostracism, and physical violence. To protect his followers’ lives and faith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) sought refuge for Muslims to practice freely and fearlessly.

Abyssinia as a Safe Haven

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) identified Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia) as a potential sanctuary for the persecuted Muslims. Abyssinia was ruled by King Negus (also known as Najashi), a Christian monarch renowned for his justice and compassion. The Prophet believed that Negus’s sense of justice would provide the Muslims with the protection they desperately needed.

The Journey

In 615 CE, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) advised a group of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia. This group comprised of 11 men and 4 women, including Uthman ibn Affan (RA) and his wife Ruqayyah (RA), the daughter of the Prophet. This migration marked the first significant exodus of Muslims seeking refuge from persecution.

Reception in Abyssinia

Upon their arrival in Abyssinia, the Muslim refugees were granted asylum by King Negus. They were allowed to live in peace and practice their faith without interference. The just and tolerant treatment by Negus reinforced the Prophet’s trust in the king’s benevolence.

Quraysh’s Attempt to Extradite the Refugees

Alarmed by the growing influence of Islam and the safe haven provided by Abyssinia, the Quraysh sent a delegation to King Negus to request the extradition of the Muslim refugees. They dispatched Amr ibn al-As and Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah with gifts to sway the king into surrendering the Muslims.

The Hearing

King Negus summoned the Muslim refugees to hear their side of the story. The spokesperson for the Muslims was Ja’far ibn Abi Talib (RA), the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ja’far eloquently explained the plight of the Muslims, the teachings of Islam, and their reasons for seeking refuge in Abyssinia. He recited verses from Surah Maryam, which moved Negus and his bishops deeply, especially the mention of Jesus (Isa) and Mary (Maryam) in a respectful and reverent manner.

King Negus’s Decision

After hearing Ja’far’s speech, King Negus was convinced of the sincerity and truthfulness of the Muslims’ faith. He rejected the Quraysh’s request, stating that the Muslims would remain under his protection. Negus declared, “Go, for you are safe in my land. Whoever abuses you will have to pay a fine. No one will be harmed as long as they live in my land.”

Return of Some Refugees

Some Muslims returned to Makkah after hearing a false rumor that the persecution had ended. However, they soon faced renewed hostility and returned to Abyssinia. This second wave included notable figures such as Umm Salama (RA), who later became one of the Prophet’s wives.

Impact and Significance

The first migration to Abyssinia was a crucial event in Islamic history. It provided the early Muslim community with a respite from relentless persecution, allowing them to practice their faith in peace. This migration also established a precedent for seeking refuge and forming alliances with non-Muslim rulers who were just and compassionate.

Key Points

  1. Severe Persecution: Muslims faced intense persecution in Makkah, prompting the need for a safe refuge.
  2. Abyssinia as a Sanctuary: Abyssinia was chosen for its just and compassionate king, Negus.
  3. First Group of Migrants: The first group included 11 men and 4 women, who sought asylum in Abyssinia in 615 CE.
  4. Quraysh’s Failed Extradition Attempt: The Quraysh urged Negus to extradite the Muslims, but he refused after Ja’far ibn Abi Talib’s eloquent defense.
  5. Negus’s Protection: King Negus provided asylum and protection, allowing Muslims to practice their faith freely.
  6. Impact: The migration was a significant milestone, offering the early Muslims much-needed respite and setting a precedent for future migrations.

The initial migration underscored seeking protection in persecution and forming alliances with just non-Muslim rulers. It also highlighted the resilience and determination of the early Muslim community in preserving their faith under challenging circumstances.

The Second Migration: Makkah to Madinah

“The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)”

Reasons for the Migration to Madinah

1. Severe Persecution in Makkah

As the message of Islam spread in Makkah, the early Muslims faced escalating persecution from the Quraysh tribe. This included physical violence, social ostracism, economic sanctions, and psychological torment. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers endured immense hardships, and the situation became increasingly untenable. The intensity of the persecution led Allah to command the Muslims to migrate to a safer place where they could freely practice their faith.

2. Divine Command and Prophetic Vision

Allah chose Madinah (then Yathrib) as the land of Hijrah (migration for the sake of Allah). The decision to migrate was not merely a strategic one but was also divinely inspired. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saw a vision confirming Madinah as the destination. This vision played a crucial role in guiding the Muslims to their new home.

Prophetic Dream
Abu Musa narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said:
“I saw in a dream that I was migrating from Makkah to a land in which there are date-palms, and I thought that it was al-Yamamah or Hajar, but it turned out to be al-Madinah, Yathrib…” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 3352; Muslim, 4217).

This dream highlighted the significance of Madinah as the chosen place for the migration.

‘Aishah’s Narration
Al-Bukhari (3906) narrated that ‘Aishah said:
“The Prophet (PBUH) said to the Muslims, ‘I have been shown the land to which you will migrate: it has palm trees between the two lava fields, the two stony tracts.’ So, some people migrated to Madinah, and most of those people who had previously migrated to the land of Ethiopia, returned to Madinah.”

This narration further confirms the divine selection of Madinah as the destination for the Muslim community.

3. Support and Acceptance in Madinah

Unlike the hostile environment in Makkah, the people of Yathrib (Madinah) were more receptive to the message of Islam. Two significant tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj, had been in conflict for years and were seeking a unifying leader to bring peace. After meeting the Prophet (PBUH) and hearing his message, they recognized his qualities as a potential leader and mediator.

Pledge of Aqabah

In the 12th and 13th Prophethood years, Yathrib delegations met Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) at Aqabah during Hajj. They pledged their allegiance to him, promising to support and protect him if he migrated to their city. The Pledge of Aqabah laid the foundation for establishing the first Muslim community in Madinah.

4. Strategic Importance of Madinah

Madinah’s geographical location was also strategically significant. It was situated on the trade route between Makkah and the northern regions, which allowed for economic and political influence. The city’s diverse population created an ideal environment for Islam’s spread and the establishment of an Islamic state.

5. Foundation for an Islamic State

The migration to Madinah provided the Muslims with the opportunity to establish a community based on Islamic principles. In Madinah, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was able to implement Islamic laws, build a mosque, and create a constitution known as the “Constitution of Madinah,” which outlined the rights and duties of all citizens, including Muslims, Jews, and other tribes. This migration marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar and the formation of the first Islamic state.

The First Companions Who Migrated to Madinah

The migration to Madinah was a significant event in the early history of Islam. It was undertaken by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers to escape the intense persecution they faced in Makkah. Among the first Companions to migrate to Madinah were key figures who played crucial roles in the early Muslim community.

1-Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr and Ibn Umm Maktum

Al-Bara (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the first of the Prophet’s Companions to arrive in Madinah were Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr and Ibn Umm Maktum. They were sent by the Prophet (PBUH) ahead of the main migration to teach the people of Madinah the Quran and the principles of Islam.

2-Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr

Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr was a young and dedicated Companion known for his eloquence and deep faith. He was the first envoy of Islam and played a vital role in spreading the message of Islam in Madinah. His efforts laid the foundation for the acceptance of Islam among the Ansar (the helpers), the native inhabitants of Madinah.

3-Ibn Umm Maktum

Ibn Umm Maktum was a blind Companion who, along with Mus’ab, worked tirelessly to educate the new Muslim converts in Madinah. Despite his disability, he was a committed teacher and later served as a Mu’azzin (caller to prayer) alongside Bilal ibn Rabah.

The Arrival of Other Early Migrants

Following Mus’ab and Ibn Umm Maktum, several other prominent Companions made the journey to Madinah.

4-‘Ammar ibn Yasir

‘Ammar ibn Yasir was one of the earliest converts to Islam and endured severe persecution in Makkah. His migration to Madinah marked a significant step in his continued support for the Prophet (PBUH) and the Islamic cause.

5-Bilal ibn Rabah

Bilal ibn Rabah, known for his remarkable voice and devotion, was the first Mu’azzin in Islam. His migration to Madinah was a testament to his unwavering faith and commitment, having suffered greatly in Makkah for his beliefs.

6-Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas was among the early converts and a close Companion of the Prophet (PBUH). His journey to Madinah was part of the larger migration movement that solidified the Muslim community in their new home.

7-‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and Twenty Others

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, a formidable and influential Companion, migrated to Madinah with a group of twenty other Muslims. His presence provided strength and support to the burgeoning Muslim community.

The Arrival of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

The migration culminated with the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Al-Bara’s narration highlights the immense joy and celebration in Madinah upon the Prophet’s arrival:

“The first ones who came to us of the Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) were Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr and Ibn Umm Maktum. They started to teach us the Quran. Then ‘Ammar, Bilal, and Sa’d came, then ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab came with twenty others. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came, and I never saw the people of Madinah rejoice more than that. They rejoiced so much that I saw the girls and boys saying, ‘This is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), he has come.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 4560).

The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)

The Prophet’s Dream

 ‘Aishah said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to the Muslims:  

“In a dream I have been shown your place of migration, a land of date palm trees, between two lava fields, the two stony tracts.” So, some people migrated to Madinah, and most of those people who had previously migrated to the land of Ethiopia, returned to Madinah. Abu Bakr also prepared to leave for Madinah, but the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to him, “Wait for a while, because I hope that I will be allowed to migrate also.” Abu Bakr said, “Do you indeed expect this? May my father be sacrificed for you!” The Prophet said, “Yes.” So Abu Bakr stayed behind for the sake of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) so that he could accompany him. He fed two she-camels he owned with the leaves of the samur tree for four months. 

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) received divine permission through Angel Jibra’il to emigrate from Makkah al-Mukarramah to the city of Yathrib (later known as Madinah). This divine revelation marked a pivotal moment in Islamic history, guiding the Prophet towards a new phase of his mission.

At noon, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) visited Abu Bakr (RA) to discuss and finalize arrangements for the intended migration. Abu Bakr (RA), a close companion and supporter, played a crucial role in these preparations, ensuring everything was in place for the journey.

A Secret Visit and the Preparation for the Journey to Madinah

One day, while we were sitting in Abu Bakr’s house at noon, someone said to Abu Bakr, “This is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with his head covered, coming at a time at which he never used to visit us before.” Abu Bakr said, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for him. By Allah, he has not come at this hour except for something important.” So the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came and asked permission to enter, and he was admitted.

When he entered, he said to Abu Bakr. “Tell everyone who is present with you to go away.” Abu Bakr replied, “There is no one here but your family. May my father be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet said, “I have been given permission to migrate.” Abu Bakr said, “Shall I accompany you? May my father be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah!” The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Yes.” Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allah, may my father be sacrificed for you, take one of these two she-camels of mine.

The Journey to the Cave of Thawr

” The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) replied, “(I will accept it) with payment.” So we prepared the baggage quickly and put some journey food in a leather bag for them. Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, cut a piece from her waist belt and tied the mouth of the leather bag with it, and for that reason she was named Dhat-un-Nitaqayn (i.e. the owner of two belts). 

Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr reached a cave on the mountain of Thawr and stayed there for three nights. 

The Hijrah Strategy: Nightly Operations and the Role of Trusted Guides

‘Abdullah bin Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and wise youth, stayed (with them) overnight. He would leave them before daybreak so that in the morning he would be with Quraysh, as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them, and when it became dark he would (go and) inform them of it. ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah, the freed slave of Abu Bakr, used to bring the milch sheep (of his master, Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep. ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah would then take the flock away when it was still dark (before daybreak).

He did the same on each of those three nights. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr had hired a man from the tribe of Bani al-Dayl from the family of Bani ‘Abd ibn ‘Adiyy as an expert guide, … he was of the religion of the infidels of Quraysh but the Prophet and Abu Bakr trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and made an appointment with him for him to bring their two she-camels to the cave of the mountain of Thawr in the morning after three nights had passed. And (when they set out), ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah and the guide went along with them and the guide led them along the coast. 

Suraqah ibn Ju’sham: The Pursuit and Revelation during the Hijrah

Ibn Shihab said: ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Malik al-Mudliji, who was the nephew of Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju’sham, told me that his father informed him that he heard Suraqah ibn Ju’sham saying, “The messengers of the kuffar of Quraysh came to us declaring that they had assigned for the persons who would kill or arrest the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr, a reward equal to their blood money.

While I was sitting in one of the gatherings of my tribe, Bani Mudlij, a man from them came to us and stood while we were sitting, and said, ‘O Suraqah! No doubt, I have just seen some people far away on the shore, and I think they are Muhammad and his companions.’ ” Suraqah added, “I too realized that it must have been they. But I said ‘No, it is not they, but you have seen so-and-so, and so-and-so whom we saw setting out.’ I stayed in the gathering for a while and then got up and left for my home. I ordered my slave-girl to get my horse which was behind a hillock, and keep it ready for me. 

Suraqah ibn Ju’sham’s Encounter: The Miraculous Protection during the Hijrah

Then I took my spear and left by the back door of my house dragging the lower end of the spear on the ground and keeping it low. Then I reached my horse, mounted it and made it gallop. When I approached them (i.e. Muhammad and Abu Bakr), my horse stumbled and I fell down from it, Then I stood up, got hold of my quiver and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether I should harm them (i.e. the Prophet and Abu Bakr) or not, and the lot which I disliked came out. But I remounted my horse and let it gallop, giving no importance to the divining arrows.

When I heard the recitation of the Quran by the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who was not looking around although Abu Bakr kept doing that, suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground up to the knees, and I fell down from it. Then I rebuked it and it got up but it could hardly lift its forelegs from the ground, and when it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Then again I drew lots with the divining arrows, and the lot which I disliked, came out. So I called to them to let them know they were safe.

Encounter with Suraqah bin Malik and Assured Safety

They stopped, and I remounted my horse and went to them. When I saw how I had been hampered from harming them, it came to my mind that the Cause of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) (i.e. Islam) would become victorious. So I said to him, “Your people have assigned a reward equal to the blood money for your capture.” Then I told them all the plans the people of Makkah had made concerning them.

I offered them some journey food and goods but they refused to take anything and did not ask for anything, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Do not tell others about us.” I requested him to write for me a guarantee of security. He ordered ‘Amir bin Fuhayrah to write it for me on a piece of animal skin, then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on his way.” 

Arrival in Madinah: The Prophet’s Welcome and Recognition

Ibn Shihab said: ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr told me: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) met al-Zubayr in a caravan of Muslim merchants who were returning from Syria. Al-Zubayr gave the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr a gift of white clothes. When the Muslims of Madinah heard the news of the departure of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) from Makkah (towards Madinah), they started going to the harrah (lava field) every morning.

They would wait for him till the heat of the noon forced them to return. One day, after waiting for a long while, they returned home, and when they went into their houses, a Jew climbed up onto the roof of one of the forts of his people to look for something, and he saw the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his companions dressed in white clothes, as if they were emerging out of a desert mirage. 

Recognition and Reception

The Jew could not help shouting at the top of his voice, “O Arabs! Here is your great man whom you have been waiting for!” So all the Muslims rushed to pick up their weapons and went to meet the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the lava field. The Prophet turned with them to the right and alighted in the land of Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf.

This was on Monday in the month of Rabee’ al-Awwal. Abu Bakr stood up, welcoming the people, while the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sat down and remained silent. Some of the Ansar who came and had not seen the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) before, began greeting Abu Bakr, but when the sunshine fell on the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr came forward and shaded him with his cloak, only then did the people come to know the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).  

Establishment of the Mosque in Madinah

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed with Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf for ten nights and established the mosque (mosque of Quba) which was founded on piety. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prayed in it and then mounted his she-camel and moved on, accompanied by the people till his she-camel knelt down at (the place of) the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) at Madinah.

Some Muslims used to pray there in those days, and that place was a yard for drying dates belonging to Suhayl and Sahl, two orphan boys who were under the guardianship of As’ad ibn Zurarah. When his she-camel knelt down, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “This place, Allah willing, will be our place.” The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then called the two boys and told them to name a price for that yard so that he might take it as a mosque.

Building the Prophetic Mosque with Devotion

The two boys said, “No, but we will give it as a gift, O Messenger of Allah!” The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refused to take it as a gift and insisted on buying it from them, then he built a mosque there. The Prophet himself started carrying unburnt bricks for its building and while doing so, he was saying “This load is better than the load of Khaybar, for it is more pious in the Sight of Allah and purer and better rewardable.”

He was also saying, “O Allah! The actual reward is the reward in the Hereafter, so bestow Your Mercy on the Ansar and the Muhajirin.”

Thus the Prophet recited (by way of proverb) the poem of some Muslim poet whose name is unknown to me. 

Ibn Shibab said, “We have not heard in any ahadith that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited any complete line of poetry apart from this.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari, 3906)

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Plot Against the Prophet

Meanwhile, the chiefs of all the prominent tribes in Makkah gathered at Dar al-Nadwah to deliberate on how to deal with the growing influence of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In a desperate attempt to thwart the Prophet’s mission, they devised a sinister plan.

They selected eleven men, each representing a different tribe, to jointly execute the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). They intended to avoid retaliation from the Prophet’s clan, Banu Hashim, by spreading responsibility and blood-money among all tribes. This calculated plot aimed to eliminate the Prophet and suppress the rising influence of Islam in Makkah.

Divine Protection and Command

As night fell, the band of assassins surrounded the Prophet’s (PBUH) house, awaiting the opportunity to carry out their deadly mission. However, Allah (SWT) intervened with divine protection. Revelation (Surah Al-Anfal, 8:30) alerted the Prophet (PBUH) to the plot, prompting immediate action for his safety and mission.

He received a command not to sleep in his bed that night but to migrate to Yathrib instead.Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) entrusted Ali (RA) to manage his affairs in Makkah, including returning trusts and belongings. Ali slept in the Prophet’s bed under his green mantle, while the Prophet quietly left to deceive the assassins.

Departure from Makkah

In the early hours of the morning, the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) departed Makkah unnoticed. They headed southwards, mounted on two she-camels prepared by Abu Bakr for the journey. The Hijrah began on Thursday, 27th Safar, in the 14th year of Prophethood (12/13 September 622 A.D.).

The Prophet’s departure was a strategic move, evading the assassins and navigating through paths least expected. His journey to Yathrib (Madinah) was a pivotal spiritual and historical event shaping Islam’s future.

Certainly, here are more details about the events surrounding the Prophet Muhammad’s departure from Makkah during the Hijrah:

Divine Intervention and Departure

Besiegement of the Prophet’s House

As night descended, a group of young assassins surrounded the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) house in Makkah. They kept vigil, waiting for an opportunity to assassinate him. The chiefs of various tribes in Makkah devised a plan to eliminate the Prophet and halt Islam’s spread.

Divine Revelation and Command

During this critical moment, Allah (SWT) revealed to His Prophet (PBUH) the details of the plot against him. The revelation highlighted the intentions of the disbelievers to imprison, kill, or banish him from Makkah (Surah Al-Anfal, 8:30). The divine message assured the Prophet that while disbelievers plotted, Allah’s plan supersedes all human plans.

Command to Emigrate

In light of the imminent danger, Allah commanded the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) not to sleep in his bed that night and to immediately emigrate to Yathrib (Madinah). Allah instructed the Prophet (PBUH) to recite a prayer for safe entry into Yathrib and protection during his departure from Makkah (Surah Al-Isra, 17:80).

Entrusting Ali (RA)

To execute the plan safely, the Prophet (PBUH) entrusted Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA) with a critical task. He handed over all his trusts and belongings to Ali (RA), instructing him to stay behind in Makkah and sleep in his bed. Ali (RA), wearing the Prophet’s green mantle, lay in the Prophet’s bed to create the illusion that the Prophet was still present.

Departure from Makkah

Under the cover of darkness and with divine protection, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) quietly left his house. As he passed by the group of assassins who were unaware of his departure, he cast a handful of dust towards them, reciting verses from the Quran (Surah Yaseen, 36:9) that emphasized how Allah had veiled their vision.


This event showcases the divine protection and strategic planning that enabled the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to safely embark on the journey of Hijrah. It marks a significant moment not only in Islamic history but also in the Prophet’s mission, as he sought to establish the principles of Islam and protect his followers from persecution in Makkah.

Would you like to delve into more details about the subsequent stages of the Hijrah journey, such as their time in the Cave of Thawr, encounters on the way to Yathrib, or their arrival in Madinah? Let me know how you’d like to proceed!

Certainly! Here are more details about the next stages of the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) journey during the Hijrah:

Departure from Makkah


After leaving his house undetected, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) proceeded directly to the house of Abu Bakr (RA). They quickly made final arrangements and preparations for their journey to Yathrib (Madinah). Abu Bakr (RA) had already prepared two she-camels for this purpose.

Mounting the She-Camels

Both the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) mounted the she-camels, ready to embark on their journey southwards.They chose this mode of transportation for its suitability and reliability over the rugged terrain they would traverse.

Payment for the Riding Camel

Despite being a guest and companion, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) insisted on paying the price for the riding camel that Abu Bakr (RA) had prepared specifically for him. This gesture reflected the Prophet’s humility and adherence to fairness in transactions, even in urgent circumstances.

Provisioning for the Journey

The daughters of Abu Bakr (RA), particularly his eldest daughter Asma, played a crucial role in provisioning for the journey. Asma tore her waist-wrapper to secure the vessel containing food for the journey. This act of resourcefulness and sacrifice underlined the urgency and commitment with which they prepared for the arduous journey ahead.

Departure Date

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) left Makkah on Thursday, the 27th of Safar, in the 14th year of Prophethood. This corresponds to the date of 12/13 September 622 A.D. in the Gregorian calendar. The departure marked a pivotal moment in Islamic history, beginning the Hijrah and a new phase for the Muslim community.

Importance and Reflection

The departure from Makkah was not only a physical journey but also a profound spiritual and strategic move. It symbolized the transition from persecution and adversity to a new haven where Islam could flourish and grow. Abu Bakr (RA) and his family’s preparations, combined with the Prophet’s decisive actions and prayers, reflect their reliance on divine guidance and protection during challenges.

Seeking Refuge in the Cave

Departure from Makkah

After leaving his house undetected, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) embarked on their journey southwards towards Yathrib (Madinah). They carefully navigated through paths less expected to avoid detection by those searching for them.

Arrival at Mount Thawr

The journey led them to Mount Thawr, a rugged mountain located about 5 miles south of Makkah. Recognizing the strategic advantage of its lofty peak, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) sought refuge in a cave there. This cave provided them temporary shelter from those who sought to harm them.

Protection and Vigilance

Abu Bakr (RA) demonstrated his unwavering commitment and dedication by alternating between going ahead and staying behind the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). His vigilance aimed to protect the Prophet from any potential threats or surprise attacks that might arise along their journey or during their stay in the cave.

Miraculous Signs

During their refuge in the cave, several miraculous occurrences are reported in Islamic tradition:

  • The Sprouting of a Tree: A tree miraculously sprouted near the entrance of the cave, providing additional cover and protection for the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA).
  • The Nesting of Wild Doves: A pair of wild doves nested and laid eggs in the tree, symbolizing peace and tranquility amidst adversity.
  • The Spider’s Web: A spider spun a web across the entrance of the cave. This web, often seen as vulnerable, actually signaled divine protection by deterring unnoticed intruders.

Duration of Stay

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) remained concealed in the cave for three days and nights. This period spanned Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, during which they remained hidden from those searching for them in Makkah.

Reflection and Significance

The events at Mount Thawr during the Hijrah journey highlight profound lessons in trust, reliance on divine protection, and steadfastness in the face of adversity. The miraculous signs observed in the cave reaffirmed the belief in Allah’s guidance and providence, demonstrating that even in moments of peril, the Prophet (PBUH) and his companion were under divine care.

Pursuit by the Quraysh

Vigorous Search Efforts

The frustrated leaders of Makkah, upon learning of the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) escape and his refuge in the cave, intensified their efforts to capture him. They deployed infantry, horsemen, and trackers to scour every possible route leading out of Makkah. The entire city mobilized in a frantic search, combing through valleys and hills, determined to apprehend the Prophet.

Concern for Safety

Abu Bakr (RA), ever vigilant for the safety of the Prophet (PBUH), noticed that search parties had reached the vicinity of the cave. This understandably heightened his anxiety about their precarious situation.

Divine Reassurance

In this moment of concern, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) consoled Abu Bakr (RA) with words of reassurance: “Do not grieve. Certainly Allah is with us.” (Quran 9:40) These words reaffirmed their faith in Allah’s protection and plan.

Support and Secrecy

  • Abdullah, Son of Abu Bakr: He played a crucial role by monitoring the movements of the Quraysh from Makkah. Abdullah departed for Makkah before dawn, returning each evening with vital intelligence on pursuing forces’ activities.
  • Asma, Daughter of Abu Bakr: She undertook the responsibility of providing food for the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Abu Bakr (RA) during their stay in the cave. Asma demonstrated resourcefulness by tearing her waist-wrapper to secure a vessel for food, highlighting her commitment and sacrifice.
  • `Amir bin Fuhayrah: He played a supportive role by bringing herds of cattle over their tracks to obscure their footprints, ensuring their concealment in the cave.

Resumption of Journey

Departure from the Cave

After three days of concealment in the Cave of Thawr, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), accompanied by Abu Bakr (RA), resumed their journey towards Yathrib on Monday, the 1st of Rabi` al-Awwal. This departure marked a critical Hijrah phase, moving closer to their destination with divine guidance.

Coastal Route

  • They chose a less-traveled path along the coast of the Red Sea, avoiding the usual routes heavily monitored by the Quraysh.
  • Guide: Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) enlisted Abdullah bin Uraiqit, a trustworthy non-Muslim guide familiar with the coastal terrain. His regional expertise enabled discreet night travel and daytime rest, facilitating their journey.

Events During the Journey and Arrival

Encounter with Suraqah bin Malik

During their journey, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and companions encountered Suraqah bin Malik seeking to capture him for reward. However, each time Suraqah tried to approach and harm the Prophet, his horse stumbled and he fell down. This happened three times, prompting Suraqah to abandon his pursuit. The Prophet forgave him and prophesied that he would wear the bracelets of the Persian ruler, fulfilled in `Umar’s caliphate.

Meeting Umm Ma`bad

On their journey, they encountered Umm Ma`bad, a generous woman who offered hospitality to travelers passing through. With limited resources, the Prophet miraculously milked her lean nanny goat to provide sustenance and quench their thirst.

Arrival at Quba and Building the First Mosque

They arrived at Quba, a suburb south of Yathrib, on Monday afternoon, 8th Rabi` al-Awwal, 14th year of Prophethood (20th September 622 A.D.). Here, the Prophet laid the foundation of the first mosque in Islam, known as Masjid Quba. He spent four days there, establishing prayers and guiding the community.

Welcome in Yathrib (Madinah)

On Friday morning, 12th Rabi al-Awwal (24th September 622 A.D.), the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) continued his journey to Yathrib, accompanied by his maternal uncles from the Banu al-Najjar clan. This marked a significant moment as the first Jumuah (Friday) prayer in Islamic history was led by the Prophet on the way from Quba to Yathrib.

Establishment in Madinah

Receiving a Warm Welcome

The people of Yathrib eagerly awaited Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), recognized as Allah’s Last Prophet. Madinah brimmed with enthusiasm and joy. Young girls sang songs of welcome, expressing their gratitude and recognition of the Prophet’s noble mission.

Settlement at Abu Ayyub al-Ansari’s House

Upon reaching Madinah, the Prophet’s camel stopped at the future site of Masjid Nabawi through divine guidance. The camel knelt in front of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari’s (RA) house, on land owned by two orphaned boys. The Prophet’s residence in Madinah began with a warm welcome and hosting by Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (RA).

Name Change of Yathrib to Madinah

Upon Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) arrival, Yathrib became Madinah al-Nabi, also known as al-Madinah al-Munawwarah and Taibah. This renaming reflected the city’s transformation into the center of Islamic leadership and community life.

Prayers for Madinah’s Prosperity

Some companions fell ill and longed for Makkah due to climate differences with Madinah. The Prophet prayed for Allah to bless Madinah, increase its prosperity, and deepen believers’ love for it.

The Importance of the Hijrah

The Plot to Assassinate: Mecca’s Decision and God’s Divine Guidance

In the annals of Islam, the Prophet’s journey from Mecca to Medina was a pivotal occasion. This occurred in six-22 A.D. That trip is seen as the start of the Islamic calendar since of its significance. Using every tool at his disposal, the Prophet had spent thirteen years in Mecca inviting his people to Islam. On their side, though, they employed every tool to cut off his call from continuing.

When they could not stop him, they convened in Mecca’s conference hall under the name “Dar al nadwa” to go over the efficient means of stopping him from summoning people to serve his purpose. Mecca’s residents resolved in that conference to kill the Prophet, and they soon began to carry out their choice. When Mecca’s people decided to kill the Prophet, he cautioned them via a revelation from God.

On the evening they intended to assassinate him, God told him to leave Mecca and head for Medina. Starting to get ready for this trip, the Prophet visited Abu Bakr one day at noon and told him what they were to do. He gave him instructions on how to arrange his travel and locate someone with desert experience. The Prophet requested his cousin Ali Ibn Abi Talib to be ready to sleep in his house that night in lieu of him the day before the night of departure.

Divine Intervention and Escape: The Miraculous Night of the Prophet’s Departure

The Prophet retired to his bed as normal that night; the young men arrived and replaced him standing outside his front door, their hands resting on their swords. As soon as the Prophet came out, they were prepared to murder him.

It is stated that when the Prophet wished to leave the home God made these young men so fatigued that fell to sleep while standing in their postures and Muhammed emerged without their awareness saying these words of the Quran.

(Ya Sin. Based on the wise Quran, Lo! You are of those sent on a straight road; a revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful, that thou mayst warn a race whose forebears were not warned, therefore they are careless. Already, most of them believe not, thus the word proved true.LO! To give them stiff-neckedness, we have placed on their necks carcans reaching towards the chins. And we have covered them so that they see not, setting a bar before them and a bar behind them.” (36:1-9)

The Pursuit and Revelation: Mecca’s Frustration and Yathrib’s Anticipation

The time had passed when the Prophet left, and they realized he had not yet emerged from his residence as he normally would have. Concerned, they pe pe at the keyhole. Someone was asleep in the bed. They chose to wait till the day break as they had no idea what happened when the sun rose. They discovered that the person lying in the bed was not Muhammad (peace be upon him), which infuriated them and set them on a search for him everywhere knowing their scheme had failed. Then they began looking outside Mecca, rewarding anyone who could locate the Prophet, alive or dead with one hundred camels.

The people of Yathrib heard news of the Prophet, which then permeated the town and was anticipated there before his arrival. Every day they waited for the Prophet, wanting to be the first to see him; when he did not show up, they went home at midday. Thinking the Prophet would not arrive, they had returned home at midday one day when a Jew who had ascended a date tree spotted the Prophet and his friends arriving. Telling the people of Yathrib, “Your man has arrived,” he said, “this is a feast day among the people of Yathrib, when the Prophet was with them.”

Medina’s Transformation: The Birth of a Model Community under Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet arrived in Medina that day, and since that day is so significant, it is considered as the start of Islamic history. The Prophet began the community’s reorganizing straight after Hijrah. Prophet created and oversaw the first Muslim state. An Amalekite chief is supposed to have founded Medina; his name lived till the arrival of Prophet. From Babylonian, Greek, and Roman prosecutors or avengers, the Jews escaped and settled in the northern section of Hijaz. Among the Jewish colonies, Banu-Nadirat Khaibar, the Banu-Kuraiza at Fidak, and the Banu-Kainuka close to Medina proper were the most significant. Until two Kahtanite Arab tribes, Aus and Khazraj, emerged in Medina (Yethrib), they had dominated over the surrounding Arab tribes and lived in walled cantons.

While the Jews were using their circumstances for their own benefit, these two Arab tribes were fighting with one another. When the Prophet arrived Medina, which is around 11 days’ walk (by foot) from Mecca, the state of the city was as follows. The Prophet Muhammad created a harmonic balance between the spiritual and the temporal therefore fostering a disciplined, model and living community. His new system of law dispensed imperial justice in which even the head of the state was as much a subject of it as any commoner, and in which religious tolerance was so great that non-Muslim residents of Muslim nations equally enjoyed complete juridical, legal, cultural, and religious freedom. He gave the impoverished more thought than he did anyone else.

Medina’s Constitution: Establishing a Model of Governance under Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet Muhammad effectively applied all he taught others and established a great example. From his arrival into Medina, the Prophet formed a brotherhood between the “Ansar and Muhajireen,” and brought them together in closer ties. The two tribes of Aus and Khazraj abandoned their fatal conflicts in the brotherhood of faith. They gathered around the Islamic norm and established the core of the Muslim population. The old divisions vanished, and the people of the society bonded in both delight and sadness.

The Prophet invited the representatives of the people of the area, Muslims and non-Muslims, and proposed the founding of a city-state in Medina for the better reorganizing of the society as well as the development of the state. As the ruler of the state, he gave the city a written constitution defining the obligations and rights both of the people and rights both of which ascent bestowed upon them. Considered as the head of the envisioned city-state, the Prophet Muhammad was overwhelmingly praised. Remember that this is the first sort of written constitution known to exist anywhere.

Eliminating the traditional private justice, the administration of justice became henceforward the focus of the central organization of the people’s society. Particularly for the Jews, the document established ideas of defense, foreign policy, social justice, and clearly liberty of religion especially since the constitutional act guaranteed equality with Muslims in all that affected life in this world. The Prophet Muhammad would, the document acknowledged, have the last word in all distinctions.

The Prophet Muhammad: A Beacon of Light in History

From the period of Hijrah the Prophet stands in the full blaze of day upon which the light of History has ever shown. Carefully observed and passed down to next generations are the specifics of his existence. His purity and nobleness of character, his great and sincere faith in God’s Mercy won round many a committed heart. Like the obedient mariner, the hour of the severest challenge comes arrives and he stays at his post until all his followers are safe. His great friendship, bravery,

sincerity and passion for the truth he came to teach had exposed the hero and master whose it was both difficult to disobey and impossible not to adore. The men of Medina came to know Muhammad (peace be upon him) they dedicated themselves to him body and soul, and the excitement took fire and spread among the tribes of Arabia till all the peninsula flocked to the feet of the Prophet of the God. Often going without bread, the preacher who repaired his garments with his own hands was mightier than the most powerful sovereigns on Earth. Now the ruler of human hearts, supreme commander, main attorney, and yet devoid of all self exaltation. People point and say, “There goes ‘Al-Ameen,’ the true, straight, trustworthy friend, walking humbly and purely.”

The Migration (Hijrah) of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) offers several profound lessons:

  1. Trust in Divine Guidance: The Prophet’s reliance on Allah’s guidance and protection during adversity teaches us to trust in divine providence in our own challenges.
  2. Perseverance and Sacrifice: The journey symbolizes the sacrifices and perseverance required in upholding principles and beliefs, even in the face of opposition.
  3. Community and Unity: Hijrah underscores the importance of community and unity among believers, as the early Muslims supported each other during this transition.
  4. Strategic Planning: The Prophet’s meticulous planning and foresight in navigating challenges offer lessons in strategic thinking and preparation.
  5. Adaptability and Resilience: The ability to adapt to new environments and circumstances, as demonstrated by the Prophet and his companions in Madinah, is another key lesson.
  6. Migration for Religious Freedom: The migration highlights the pursuit of religious freedom and a just society, principles vital in today’s human rights discussions.

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