Madd Rules In Tajweed: A Comprehensive Guide

Madd Rules In Tajweed: A Comprehensive Guide

Delve into the intricate world of Tajweed with a comprehensive exploration of Madd Rules in Tajweed. Madd letters in Arabic play a crucial role in Quranic recitation, shaping the rhythm and melody of the sacred text.

In Tajweed, the Arabic term “Madd” signifies the elongation or extension of vowel sounds under specific circumstances. This practice is indispensable for accurately reciting the Quran. Madd entails prolonging the duration of a vowel due to certain letters or harakat (vowel marks), enhancing the beauty and rhythm of recitation while ensuring clarity and precision. The rules governing Madd are intricate and vary depending on the context and neighboring letters, playing a pivotal role in Tajweed.

Explore the various types of Madd (Tabee’ee, Badal, Ewadd, ‘Ared Li-Ssukoon, Al-Leen, Wajeb Muttasil, Ja’ez Munfasil, Lazem) in detail to deepen your understanding.

Understanding the Madd Rules in Quranic Recitation

In Quranic recitation, “Madd” refers to vowel elongation, which is integral to Tajweed, the art of precise Quranic recitation. This practice ensures adherence to the original revelation of the Quran. Madd rules, diverse in nature, provide specific guidelines for the duration of vowel extension in various contexts. Key types of Madd include Madd Tabee’ee, Madd Al-Badal, Madd Ewadd, and others, each dictating unique elongation lengths and circumstances. Understanding these categories is crucial for mastering Tajweed and enhancing Quranic recitation.

Madd Letters:

Madd Letters in Arabic Tajweed encompass the practice of prolonging vowel sounds, facilitated by specific letters categorized into Leen and Huroof Maddiyyah:

  1. Alif Saakin (ا): After a Fatha, it stretches the ‘a’ sound, resulting in a clear and extended ‘aa’ sound.
  2. Waaoo Saakin (و): When following a Dammah, it elongates the ‘u’ sound, producing a deeper ‘uu’ sound.
  3. Yaa Saakin (ي): After a Kasrah, it lengthens the ‘i’ sound into a longer ‘ii’.

Leen Letters:

  1. Yaa Saakin (ي): This letter extends the ‘a’ sound when preceded by a Fatha, creating a soft and elongated ‘ai’ sound.
  2. Waaoo Saakin (و): Following a Fatha, it produces a prolonged ‘au’ sound, smoothly blending the sounds.

Exploring Types of Madd in Tajweed

In Tajweed, various types of Madd as follows:

1-Madd Asli/Tabi’y (Natural Madd):

Natural Madd:


Madd Asli is a type of prolongation inherent to certain letters, without which those letters cannot exist. It occurs when any of the three elongation letters (Alif, Waw, or Ya) is preceded by a hamza or sukoon.


Madd Asli extends for two harakahs. A harakah is the duration of opening one of the fingers after making the closed fist, and two harakahs represent the time it takes to open two fingers, one after another.

Reason for Name:

Madd Asli earns its name because it lacks causes for secondary prolongations, it occurs naturally in Arabic without external influence, it has a consistent duration of only two harakahs, and its pronunciation solely defines the entity of the letter of prolongation. Additionally, it’s termed “Madd Tabee” (natural) because it’s naturally prolonged for only two harakahs, neither more nor less than this.

Madd Asli Includes:

1. Madd Tabi’y: Natural prolongation of vowels, typically extending for two counts.

2. Madd Ewadd: An addition that prolongs a vowel due to only tanween fatha on the last letter of the word.

2-Madd Far’ee (Secondary Madd):

Secondary Madd:


Madd Faree is a type of prolongation added to Madd Asli for specific reasons.


There are two causes of Madd Faree:

1. Incorporeal: This cause is related to the meaning of the text. It is not found in the Hafs recitation reported from the Al-Shatibiyyah way, but it is permitted in certain recitations like Tayyibat Al-Nashr.

2. Lexical: This cause occurs when a particular letter leads to the lengthening of Madd Faree more than Madd Asli.

Types of Madd Far’ee

1-Madd Due to Hamzah:

3. Madd Al-Badal: Substitution elongation, often involving a substituted Alif.

4. Madd Wajib Muttasil: Mandatory connected prolongation involving a Hamza within the same word.

5. Madd Munfasil: Permissible detached prolongation with Hamza in the following word.

2-Madd Due to Sukoon:

6. Madd ‘Aarid Lis Sukoon: Temporary prolongation caused by stopping at a word.

7. Madd Al-Leen: Soft elongation associated with Waw and Ya.

8. Madd Lazim: Compulsory elongation under specific conditions.

9. Madd Tamkeen: Elongation occurring when a ‘yaa’ with a ‘shaddah’ and a ‘kasr’ is followed by a ‘yaa saakinah’ within the same word, leading to a unique prolongation.

Madd Tabee’ee (Natural Madd):

Known as Natural Madd, this principle stands as a fundamental in Tajweed. It involves the innate elongation of vowel sounds in Arabic letters when they are succeeded by a Madd letter (Alif, Waw, or Ya). Typically, this elongation extends the sound for two Harakat (beats or units of time). Madd Tabee’ee is considered the simplest form of Madd, yet it is an indispensable aspect of proper Quranic recitation, enriching the spoken word with melody and clarity.

Examples of Madd Tabee’ee:

1. َقَال (Qaala) – The Alif after the Fatha on ق extends the ‘a’ sound.

2. مُوسَى (Moosaa) – The Waw after the Dammah on م elongates the ‘oo’ sound.

3. قَرِيبًا (Qareeban) – The Ya after the Kasra on ق prolongs the ‘ee’ sound.

Learn more about Madd Tabee’ee

Madd Ewadd (Compensation Madd):

Madd Ewadd, also recognized as Compensation Madd, is a Tajweed principle that entails elongating a vowel sound to compensate for the absence of a Hamzah (ء) or a Sukoon (a diacritic sign indicating the absence of a vowel) on the subsequent letter. This rule ensures a smooth and melodious flow of pronunciation in Quranic recitation.

Madd Ewadd is prolonged for 2 beats.

Examples of Madd Ewadd:

  1. قَوِيًّا (Qawiyyan) – The final vowel sound is prolonged for two counts to compensate for the absence of a Hamzah or Sukoon.
  2. حَلِيمًا (Haleeman) – The vowel sound is elongated for two beats to ensure smooth pronunciation.

Madd Far’ee (Secondary Madd)

1-Madd Due to Hamzah:

Al-Madd Badal  المَدُّ البَدَل     

Madd Al-Badal is a Tajweed rule that involves elongation due to the presence of a Hamzah (ء) in specific circumstances. This rule applies when a word originally begins with a Hamzah (ء), but the Hamzah is omitted, and the preceding vowel sound is prolonged to compensate for its absence. Madd Al-Badal ensures proper Quranic recitation by maintaining the rhythm and flow of the verse.
Madd Al-Badal is prolonged for 2 beats.

Examples of Madd Al-Badal:

1. وَأُوحِيَ (Wa oohiya) – The original form has the second hamza with a sukoon. In the transformed form, this hamza is replaced with ‘و’ (waw) due to the damma on the first hamza.

2. In the word “إيمانهم” (eemaanahum), the Kasrah (i.e., ‘i’ sound) under the Hamza matches the Madd letter, Yaa (ي); hence, it qualifies as a case of Madd Badal, where the Madd letter is lengthened for 2 counts in accordance with the Hafs recitation. However, in the word “أيمانهم” (aymaanahum), there is a Fatha (i.e., ‘a’ sound) on the Hamza, which does not coincide with the Madd letter that follows it. Therefore, it does not meet the criteria for Madd Badal.

Al-Madd Muttasil  المَدُّ المُتَّصِل   

Madd Wajeb Muttasil is a crucial Tajweed rule that mandates elongation due to the presence of a Hamzah (ء) connected to the preceding letter within the same word. This rule specifies that the vowel sound preceding the Hamzah must be prolonged for a defined duration, typically lasting four to five beats or units of time.
This rule serves to uphold the accurate pronunciation, rhythm, and flow of Quranic verses. It ensures clear pronunciation of the Hamzah and adherence to Tajweed principles. Particularly in instances where a Hamzah is linked to the preceding letter, Madd Wajeb Muttasil guides the reciter in pronouncing these elements correctly within the word.
If a Madd letter (ا or ي or و) is followed by a Hamzah (ء) within the same word, the reciter should prolong it for 4-5 beats.

Examples of Madd Muttasil in the Quran

  • (Al-Baqarah: 31) وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ (ٱلْأَسْمَآءَ) كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى (ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ) فَقَالَ أَنۢبِـُٔونِى (بِأَسْمَآءِ) (هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ) إِن كُنتُمْ صَـٰدِقِينَ
  • (Israa: 7) …فَإِذَا (جَاءَ) وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ (لِيَسُوءُوا) وُجُوهَكُمْ…
  • (An-Nisa: 4) (فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ (هَنِيئًا) (مَّرِيئًا…

Al-Madd Munfasil  المَدُّ المُنْفَصِل 

Madd Ja’ez Munfasil is a Tajweed rule that permits elongation due to the presence of a Hamzah (ء) connected to the letter preceding it in the next word. In this rule, the reader may prolong the Madd letter for 2 to 4-5 beats.

Examples of Madd Munfasil in the Quran:

  • (Al-Kawthar: 1) إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ) الْكَوْثَرَ)
  • (Al-Kafirun: 1) قُلْ (يَا أَيُّهَا) الْكَافِرُونَ
  • (Al-Baqarah: 54) … فَتُوبُوا إِلَىٰ) بَارِئِكُمْ) …

2-The Madds due to a Sukoon:

Al-Madd Aaridh المَدُّ العَارِض

(The Temporary Madd)

Madd ‘Ared Li-Ssukoon, a type of Madd, earns its characterization as “temporary Madd for stopping” in Tajweed. This rule comes into play when a Madd Tabee’ee (Natural Madd) in the letters ا (Alif), و (Waw), or ي (Ya) is followed by a letter at the end of a word, which has been temporarily made sakin (with a sukoon) because the reader has to stop at the word. In such cases, the reader should prolong the Madd Tabee’ee to become Madd ‘Ared Li Ssukoon.

Madd ‘Ared Li-Ssukoon is prolonged for 2, 4, or 6 beats. It’s important to note that Madd ‘Ared Li-Ssukoon only applies if the reader stops at that word. If the reader doesn’t stop, it should be considered as a Madd Tabee’ee (Natural Madd) lasting 2 beats.

Madd arid lil-sukun examples: الْعَالَمِينَ, الْمُفْلِحُونَ

Al-Madd Līn المَدُّ اللِّين

Madd Al-Leen, also known as the Madd of Easiness, exemplifies a Tajweed principle featuring a softer and more relaxed elongation of vowel sounds. This rule applies when a Hamzah (ء) or a Madd letter (Alif, Waw, or Ya) appears either at the end of a word or within a word, followed by a Sukoon (a diacritic sign indicating the absence of a vowel), followed by a letter with a vowel sound.

In Madd Al-Leen, the elongation is gentler and subtler compared to other Madd rules, offering ease in pronunciation without the typical extent of prolongation. This gentle elongation contributes to the melodious and effortless recitation of the Quran, ensuring a smooth and harmonious flow of words.

The reader, in adherence to this rule, should prolong the Leen letter, with the option to extend it by 2, 4, or 6 beats.

Examples Madd Al- Leen:

  • القَوْم (Al-Qawm): In this word, the letter Wau (وْ) is preceded by a letter with a fat-ha, which satisfies the condition for Madd Leen. …
  • الخَوْف (Al-Khawf): Madd Leen is also evident in this word, where the letter Wau (وْ) follows a letter with a fat-ha. …

Madd Lazem

Madd Lazem, also recognized as Necessary Prolongation, is a Tajweed regulation dictating the compulsory elongation of a vowel sound in particular words or letters. In Tajweed, the elongation is a mandate, and the reciter cannot alter or use discretion with it. Madd Lazem ensures that certain words or letters are consistently and extensively articulated with prolonged duration.

Madd Lazem encompasses two primary types, each with two subtypes. Consequently, there are a total of four types of necessary prolongation within Madd Lazem.

1) Al-Madd Lazim Kalimy المَدُّ اللَازِم الكَلِمَي

1-Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal:

Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal occurs when a Madd letter is followed by a letter with Shaddah (doubling). In this case, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for a duration of 6 beats.

Examples of Madd Lazem Kalimee Muthaqqal:

  • Arabic Word: ٱلْحَــــــآقَّةُ
    Transliteration: al-ḥāqqah
  • Arabic Word: ٱلصَّآخَّةُ
    Transliteration: aṣ-ṣākhah

2-Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf:

Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf occurs when a Madd letter is followed by a non-vowel letter within the same word. In this case, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for 6 beats.

Example of Madd Lazem Kalimee Mukhafaf:

  • Arabic Word: ءَآلْـَٰٔنَ
    Transliteration: ‘āl-ā’nā

2) Al-Madd Lazim Harfy المَدُّ اللَازِم الحَرْفِي

1-Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal:

Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal occurs when a Madd letter is followed by a letter with Shaddah (doubling). In this case, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for 6 beats.

Examples of Madd Lazem Harfee Muthaqqal:

  • Arabic Word: الٓمٓصٓ
    Transliteration: alif-lām-mīm-ṣād
  • Arabic Word: الٓمٓر
    Transliteration: alif-lām-rā
  • Arabic Word: الٓمٓ
    Transliteration: alif-lām-mīm

2-Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf:

Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf happens when a Madd letter is followed by a non-vowel letter within the same word. In this case, the reader must prolong the Madd letter for 6 beats.

Examples of Madd Lazem Harfee Mukhafaf:

  • Arabic Word: كٓهيعٓصٓ
    Transliteration: kāf-hā-yā-ʿayn-ṣād
  • Arabic Word: الٓمٓ
    Transliteration: alif-lām-mīm

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